馬自援及其《等音》考 



摘 要 



  馬自援,字槃什,明末清初雲南人,其著《等音》,為一綜合南北音系之韻圖,書中另有闡述音學理論之部分,承上啟下,為其後之等韻圖撰作者提供不少論述之依據。馬自援盛年逢禍,傳記不見於正史如《清史》、方志如《雲南通志》、以及雲南各縣志之中,因此近人論及馬自援時,多以概論性資料介紹之,對其《等音》背景資料所隱含疑點,亦多採取忽視態度,筆者欲於前人之說法上,酌以提舉新見文獻與個人意見,冀能為馬自援及其《等音》研究,提供背景論述所需之參考。本文主要分為二大部分,首先從馬自援之生卒年切入,將各家對其生卒年之推測加以比較,提出個人看法,進而探討其人之籍貫鄉里、《等音》之成書時間,以及馬自援之形貌事蹟等相關問題。其次乃就《等音》之版本問題立論,整理各版本先後與改作程度,兼論清人對該書之正反兩方評價。總言之,《等音》這本混雜南北音,糅和等韻舊書與實際語音,又糝以個人正音思想的韻學著作,歷來自有支持與反對者,雙方立場不同,論點不一,推崇也好,貶仰也罷,本文期能在前人之基礎上,對於馬自援其人其書之未解問題,作一整理與分析,闢予後世讀閱之人另一個認識《等音》之管道。 



關鍵詞:馬自援、《等音》、清代韻圖、《等音聲位合彙》 

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Background Research on Ma Zi-yuan and “Deng-in” 



Tseng, Jo-han 



Abstract 



  Ma Zi-yuan was born in Yun-nan, China, former years in Chin dynasty. He had a traditional linguistic book called “Deng-in”(《等音》). The book focuses on phonology and gathers southern and northern Chinese tones. Moreover, it concludes many related phonology books before it, and provides inspiration to later authors. However, Ma Zi-yuan did not live long, because his family was punished by the emperor for their betraying. His life was not in history books such as “Chin-shi”(《清史》) and “Yun-nan-tong-zhi”(《雲南通志》). People have ignored him for a long time. In this essay, Ma Zi-yuan’s background will be written, his book will be evaluated, and some other questions about his death date will be discussed. Finally, the opinions of people who adhere and appose to him will be but together and be compared. In short, the aim to this article is to provide information for knowing Ma Zi-yuan and his book “Deng-in.” 



Keywords:Ma Zi-yuan(馬自援)、“Deng-in”(《等音》)、a phonologic book of Chin dynasty、“Deng-in-sheng-wei-he-hui”(《等音聲位合彙》)














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