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In 759 Tu Fu was dismissed from office. Wandering all the way to far away Szechuan in his forty-eighth year, Tu Fu began to realize what official life was like and where he, as an individual, stood in a withering society. In his twenty poems written during his sojourn at Chinchow, he seemed to feel a keen disappointment in current politics. Thus he wrote:
759年杜甫被免官,48歲的他在遙遠的四川到處漫遊,當他一個人站在衰頹的社會現實中,他開始領悟到官場生活的本質。在他的〈秦州雜詩二十首〉裡頭,詩人似乎對當前的政治感到極度失望,因此他寫道:「唐堯真自聖,野老復何知。」

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Again, his disappointment was expressed in another poem entitled “His Ping Ma,” or “Purging of the Woes of War.”
又一次,他把失望表現於另一首詩中,題為〈洗兵馬〉。

In this he referred to those who climb on the bandwagon of the national heroes; of how everybody had become princes and dukes; of how according to dynastic flatterers all tiny kingdoms outside of China were submitting tributes, thus reiterating his disappointment with the young emperor whom the poet estimated to be a mediocre ruler.
詩中提到那些登上花車的國家英雄以及如何「天下盡化為侯王」,如何成為阿諛者口中的「寸地尺天皆入貢」,因此杜甫重申他對於心目中這位年輕的平庸統治者的失望。

Thenceforth, he made up his mind that there was not much he could do and that he should not entertain any further hope of “elevating the emperor above Yao and Shun.” From that time on—especially after his arrival in Szechuan—he finally resolved to live the life of a poet for the rest of his life.
此後他做出決定,他已經沒有什麼能做的了,也不應該對「致君堯舜上」懷抱著深刻的希望。從那時起,尤其在他抵達四川以後,決定要以詩人的身份終老一生。

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In the third period of his literary production, his life was a little more composed although as yet not entirely free from extreme poverty.
在文學創作的第三階段,雖然尚未徹底擺脫極度貧窮,他的生活卻稍微平靜起來。

Nonetheless, he had a little more rest and a little more leisure compared with his constant flight in the previous period. The heart of the T’ang Empire was still exposed to a whole series of emergencies.
不過,比起前一個時期不斷逃難的過程,他得以稍事休息,並得到些許餘暇。中原地帶仍然暴露於一連串的危機當中。

The An Lu-shan rebellion was prolonged by a new rebellion led by another insubordinate semi-Chinese general, Shih Ssŭ-ming; the Turfans, dissatisfied with their share of the war booty, pressed their invasion to the wall of the capital; and the central government was dropping daily in prestige and real power, making it possible for the different war lords stationed in the frontier regions to become so many petty kings.
安祿山之亂因為史思明叛變而延續著,他是一個不服從權威的將軍,帶有一半中國血統;而吐番也因為不滿意分得的戰利品,施加軍事壓力於首都城牆;此外中央政府的威信與實權也日漸滑落,軍閥得以駐紮在邊疆地區佔地為王。

China was destined to experience another period of political disintegration and division. Realizing what history had decreed for the future, Tu Fu confirmed his belief that what was open to him was nothing more than the life of a poor but dedicated poet. As before, he had no liking for reclusion and so he did not seek to leave the world, seeking only contentment and regularity in life as he found it. Hence, his poems written in this third period were ones descriptive of the simple life.
中國註定要經歷另一次政治的分崩離析。杜甫深知歷史上的前車之鑑,他更堅定了自己的信念,呈現在他面前的雖只是貧窮的生活,同時也是一種獻身於詩歌的生活。一如既往,他不喜歡隱居,因此不會想脫離世俗,他只求生活能夠滿足與規律,就像他所建立的那樣。因此,他在第三階段所作的詩,描述著儉樸的生活。

The echoes of war and devastation were still audible and political dependency was still attended with hardships but he was never deprived of his ability to elicit smiles and poetry from adverse circumstances. With the ripening of his age, his verse forms became absolutely mature.
戰爭與荒蕪所帶來的迴響仍可聽聞,政治依附也仍伴隨著苦難,但是他從未讓自己的能力被剝奪,還能夠在逆境中展露笑容與詩作。隨著年歲增長,他的詩變得完全成熟。

His short poems of this age were the natural overflow of his personality recorded at random without adornment and without conscious artistry but all palpitating with poetic flavor. They were continuations of the tradition of T’ao Yüan-ming and vanguards of the poetry of the Sung Dynasty.
到了這個年紀,他的短詩是他人格的自然流露,筆端自由而不佳裝飾,也沒有人為的加工,有的只是富於詩味的悸動。這些詩繼承了陶淵明的傳統,並成為宋詩的先驅。

What he was experiencing during this stage was real rustic life and not the life of self-styled farm hermits of the earlier part of the T’ang Dynasty. As a result, his poetry was real poetry dedicate to the appreciation of nature.
他在這時期歷經了真正的田園生活,不同於初唐時具有個人風格的田園隱士。因此,他的詩真正致力於贊頌自然。
(茅屋為秋風所破歌 杜甫)

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