〈通、廣、侷、狹在《切韻指南》格式中的意義〉
The Meaning of Tong, Guang, Ju and Xia in the Book “Qieyun Zhinan”

Johan, Tseng


摘 要

  現存宋元韻圖中,元.劉鑑《經史正音切韻指南》之格式與其他韻圖有些相異之處,例如《切韻指南》表頭中往往註明該攝為通門、廣門、侷門、或者狹門。這種標明通、廣、侷、狹的形式,即便是與之格式與時代皆甚相近的《四聲等子》也未曾採用。本文先自門法的角度切入,以了解門法作者如何闡述「通廣」與「侷狹」,進而檢視此四門在《切韻指南》一書中的配置,最後將《切韻指南》與《四聲等子》和韓道昭《改併五音集韻》比較,以探求劉鑑改變韻圖形制之因。
  經討論後發現,在《指南》的格式中「通、廣、侷、狹」具有如下意義:
(一)通廣、侷狹之韻早有發展之跡,到了《指南》的時代形成不可或缺之門法。
(二)「通、廣、侷、狹」在《指南》中定義清楚,界線分明,劉鑑已深曉其理。
(三)《指南》對「通、廣、侷、狹」的重視,乃受《等子》、《五音集韻》啟發。
(四)標示「通、廣、侷、狹」,可反映語音演變的事實,亦方便時人使用韻圖。


There are some differences in forms between “Jingshi Zhengyin Qieyun Zhinan” (or “Qieyun Zhinan”, “Zhinan”) and the other Chinese-tradition syllabary in the Sung and Yuan dynasties. For example, almost every table in “Qieyun Zhinan” has a way of using it, that is what we say Tong, Guang, Ju or Xia. These “ways” are called “Menfa” in Chinese historical phonology. At the beginning of this text shows what original meanings, which is about Tong-guang and Ju-xia, are. Then, it shows the Menfa setting in “Qieyun Zhinan”. Finally, the comparison among Qieyun Zhinan, Sisheng Dengzi and Han’s book, Gaibing Wuyin Jiyun is presented for the reason of why syllable tables have varied.

By discussion, it is found that there are some meaning hidden in the form of Tong, Guang, Ju and Xia, those may be the following:
1. “Yun” (or compound vowel in Chinese syllable), which involved in the Tong-guang part and Ju-xia part, is not new thing in the Yuan dynasty. They already became important Menfas.
2. Tong, Guang, Ju and Xia have clear definition in “Zhinan”.
3. “Sisheng Dengzi” and “Gaibing Wuyin Jiyun” are both the pioneers of “Zhinan”.
4. These Menfas not only reflect the situations of phonetic variation, but also help readers to use Chinese-tradition syllabary.


關鍵詞:《切韻指南》、通廣侷狹、等韻門法、《四聲等子》、《五音集韻》
Keywords: “Qieyun Zhinan”(切韻指南), Menfa(門法) , Tong(通), Guang(廣), Ju(侷),Xia(狹), Chinese-tradition syllabary(韻圖)

字數:9000+

已於「第一屆中山中文博碩論壇學術研討會」宣讀(2008/11/1)
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