39-2是因為編碼時漏了一段

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39-2(247)
The pioneer, and the greatest representative of this new age was Tu Fu, with many new allies and followers to extend and magnify the new literary movement in the latter half of the eighth and the first half of the ninth centuries. Thus a most brilliant period in the history of Chinese literature was created.
杜甫是新時代的先驅,也是最好的典型,他有許多新的支持者與追隨者來壯大八世紀末九世紀初的新文學運動。因此創造出中國文學史上最為光輝的時代。

40(247)
We might be justified in saying that Chinese literature of the seventh century was the literature of childhood in which poetry consisted of games and play of a high order. At the imperial court and in the mansions of the aristocrats occasional poetry played even a positively inferior role. The literature of the K’ai Yüan and T’ien Pao reigns was only a literature of adolescence. In spite of the stylistic liberation, the contents of literature were still on the whole shallow and superficial, consisting largely only of the singing of heavy drinkers and self-appointed hermits. These decades might be justifiably labeled as shêng T’ang of the high tide of T’ang with reference to peace and prosperity in the political and social scene. From the vantage point of literature, however, the period of greatest glory came later and it was not until after the rebellion that full maturity in literature was attained. From the middle years of Tu Fu to the death of Po Chü-yi in 846, both prose and poetry embarked upon the highway of realism, returning from the romantic celestial realms to the world of man.
我們可以拿很多的舊事陳言來證明(合理化)七世紀的中國文學處於少年階段,在那個時期的詩都是上層社會人士的遊戲之作。宮廷中的貴族豪宅中,偶而會有詩作,但扮演的是明顯卑微的角色。開元天寶年間的文學,也只是處於青春期。儘管文體解放了,文學的內容仍舊是膚淺的(缺乏深度),大部分只歌頌酩酊的醉漢以及自命為隱士之人。這幾十年無疑地標誌了和平繁榮政治清明的盛唐風景。然而,從文學的觀點來看,最為榮耀的時期卻在之後才到來,直到安祿山之亂後,文學的才達到充分的成熟。從杜甫中年到白居易卒(846),散文與唐詩走向現實主義的大道,從浪漫的天上國度回到了人間。

41(248)
Tu Fu (712-770), also known by the courtesy name, Tzǔ-mei, was a native of the county of Hsiangyang in present-day Honan Province. His grandfather, Tu Shên-yen, was a famous writer in the latter part of the seventh century. In his youth, Tu Fu had to face greatly reduced family resource and was compelled to undertake extensive travels along the China coast, which travels widened his intellectual horizons and made a lasting impression on his plastic young mind as he recalled later in a poem addressed to Wei Tsi:
杜甫(712-720),字子美,生於襄陽,即今河南省內。他的祖父杜審言是七世紀後期著名的詩人。杜甫年少時就面臨家道中落,不得已開始沿著中國沿岸旅行到各地。旅行擴大了他的知識水準,並在他年輕可塑的心靈中留下持久的印象,因此在他晚後寫給韋濟的詩中這麼回憶著:

奉贈韋左丞丈二十二韻 杜甫
紈褲不餓死,儒冠多誤身。丈人試靜聽,賤子請具陳。
甫昔少年日,早充觀國賓。讀書破萬卷,下筆如有神。
賦料揚雄敵,詩看子建親。李邕求識面,王翰願卜鄰。
自謂頗挺出,立登要路津。致君堯舜上,再使風俗淳。
此意竟蕭條,行歌非隱淪。騎驢三十載,旅食京華春。
朝扣富兒門,暮隨肥馬塵。殘杯與冷炙,到處潛悲辛。
主上頃見徵,欻然欲求伸。青冥卻垂翅,蹭蹬無縱鱗。
甚愧丈人厚,甚知丈人真。每於百僚上,猥誦佳句新。
竊效貢公喜,難甘原憲貧。焉能心怏怏,只是走踆踆。
今欲東入海,即將西去秦。尚憐終南山,回首清渭濱。
常擬報一飯,況懷辭大臣。白鷗沒浩蕩,萬里誰能馴。

42(249)
At thirty-eight he submitted three fu compositions on the three imperial ceremonies after the reception of which he was offered an official post which he declined in preference for another minor position. Despite his humble circumstances, he befriended other poor poets like Chêng Ch’ien who were all concerned with the degeneration political and social situation. It was during these years that he wrote his poems of satire such as “The Ballad of the Beauties” and “The Ballad of the Was Chariots.” That he long remained in obscurity was probably a great blessing in disguise, for in his humble circumstances of riding donkeyback for thirty years he not only watched at close range but also actually participated in the deprivations of the masses. Hence, he was able to discover the latent dangers with which the T’ang Empire was faced before the actual volcanic eruptions, although in conformity with the taste of the time, he also was a member of the fraternity of the drinking poets. Even then, however, in his drinking songs, people heard his voice of sorrow:
杜甫38歲時曾在三場宮廷典禮中獻上三篇賦作(fu),當他得到接見、被任命另一個小官職,他卻優先予以婉拒。儘管杜甫處境卑微,他仍然與其他窮苦的詩人往來,像是鄭虔這般擔憂著政治社會衰敗的人。正是在這幾年間,杜甫寫了幾首諷刺詩,例如〈儷人行〉、〈兵車行〉。他長期保持著沉鬱,很可能是深刻祈求的假裝,因為在他騎驢三十載的卑微處境中,他不只看得很仔細,也實際上就是苦難群眾的一份子。因此,雖然他也符合了當時代人的口味,也是好酒詩人之一,卻得以在叛亂猛然爆發之前,發現唐朝正面臨著潛在危險。可是,儘管如此,在他的飲酒詩(〈醉時歌〉)中,人們聽到了他悲傷的聲音:

醉時歌(贈廣文館博士鄭虔) 杜甫
諸公袞袞登台省,廣文先生官獨冷。甲第紛紛厭粱肉,廣文先生飯不足。
先生有道出羲皇,先生有才過屈宋。德尊一代常轗軻,名垂萬古知何用。
杜陵野客人更嗤,被褐短窄鬢如絲。日糴太倉五升米,時赴鄭老同襟期。
得錢即相覓,沽酒不復疑。忘形到爾汝,痛飲真吾師。
清夜沈沈動春酌,燈前細雨簷花落。但覺高歌有鬼神,焉知餓死填溝壑。
相如逸才親滌器,子雲識字終投閣。先生早賦歸去來,石田茅屋荒蒼苔。
儒術於我何有哉,孔丘盜跖俱塵埃。不須聞此意慘愴,生前相遇且銜杯。

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