目前日期文章:200812 (11)

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第一次參加國科會成果發表會,雖然只有聽到半天議程,也學到不少東西。國科會有很多學門,一般聲韻學的研究者把自己定位在語文學門,據王老師說是因為語言學門對文獻語料的態度比較不歡迎,語言學門主要以現代語言學的理論為研究方法,對於古籍涉獵較少。這次的主題是「臺灣語言學的挑戰與前瞻:93-96語言學門成果發表會」,事實上我也很想把自己的方向慢慢放大,朝向語言學與文獻兼容並蓄的路走,目前還不知道要做些什麼,不過拿到七百多頁的成果報告書,頓時把各方研究者的心血都集中起來了,也許從這本報告書內可以得到很多有別於過去的想法與知識,光這本書就值回票價。

國科會也真是有錢,把與會者餵得飽飽飽之外,又送了牛仔布的手提袋和一個小杯子,連會議講綱都是用銅板紙印的,難怪有吃便當部隊中午突然出現臨時報名,這也是研討會的另類景觀吧。

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很多人會說:會去考英檢都是有掛勾的啦,出了臺灣英檢就沒有屁用了,不如去考多益托福雅思。

這句話我也在極好的朋友口中聽過,但我從不懷疑英檢是一項語言檢定。

語言檢定的目的到底是什麼?如果出國是唯一目標,那好,英檢成績的確無法拿來換機票,這時候唯有把錢大筆大筆送給ETS和補習班,才有機會和歐美學校交流。但是,如果把語言檢定的目的單純視為增進語言能力呢?那麼英檢無用的道理何在?

全民英檢或托福,實質上都是一樣的,出國只是附帶的效益,想要申請美國的學校之前通過美國的托福,如果很合理的話,那麼在台灣讀書考英檢也是很合理的。事實上在歐洲讀書,托福也不見得有用,因為歐洲較常採取英國辦的雅思測驗,這時候為什麼就沒有人罵托福無用呢?

臺灣人的大美國主義令人欷噓。考一次托福要150美金,那可以用來考三次英檢,而且托福考試中當機的比率居高不下,ETS卻很少為此道歉負責,許多補托福想要藉此去美加留學的人,在補習班耗了兩三年,托福考了又考,語言能力有沒有變好因人而異,但大多數都是靠背「機經」提升分數的,我曾把托福高分的作文格式拿給一個作英語教學研究的美國作家指教,他打了我一下,說:你不准再拿給我看這種爛東西。我問:那要寫什麼?他說:請用最簡單的詞彙表達你要表達的東西,一開始要把自己變成一個小學生,才會進步。

但是我的托福老師卻教:請一定要用Big Words(難字)來讓阿豆仔以為我們懂很多。

每種語言測驗有不同的考法,可以測驗出不同能力,托福考過100分的不見得能通過高級英檢,如果每種測驗都能駕輕就熟輕鬆過關,那麼誰也都沒話說。再說,真正想要提升語言能力的人,與其耗費數年來讀托福題庫,不如省下一點補習費來考考看英檢或其他測驗,會更發現自己缺乏的部分,對出國也是有幫助的。

所以,想出國的人請不要說英檢無用,不是每個人都想出國,也不是每個人都想當ETS的搖錢樹。

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伸手摸摸剛剪完髮的頭,左邊一個隆,右邊也一個隆,頭髮多的時候不曾發現的一件事,現在因為頭髮短得像個小男生而凸顯出來,如果我是光頭,肉色的腦袋瓜一定像個屁股,天冷時候頭皮乾燥發紅,就會像個紅通通的屁股,脖子上頂著腦袋,就像頂著屁股。

這也難怪平時老想些不務正業的廢事了,腦子像屁股一樣裝了很多屎尿,自然也不會有什麼清高的思想。從小不斷盤算著怎麼作弄別人,怎麼躲爹媽的教訓,怎麼鑽老師話裡的漏洞再反擊回去,也盤算著如何用最快的速度把作業寫完,然後肆無忌憚地玩樂,也常計算怎麼樣可以離家遠一點,這樣就可以整天懶散耍賴而沒有人在旁邊叨叨念。

大了以後,屁股腦袋開始想要把廢物排光,把爛思想壞點子惡作劇臭屁話都拉進馬桶裡沖掉,可惜不能像真實的腸胃一般有乳糖不耐症,如此一來喝杯牛奶就可以盡情排放,直到虛脫,不是很好嗎?但是往往新的黑色意念產生速度要遠快於清除速度,讀再多聖賢書也於事無補的感覺往往像一面鏡子,倒映著我的兩個屁股,分不清楚到底哪一個其實是腦袋。

但現在想想,頭上頂個屁股其實也不錯,反正也沒有理光頭的打算,腦袋披了頭髮,就像下身穿了褲子,怎麼看都是人模人樣,沒人會知道、也不會問起屁股的一天經歷了什麼,下面屁股規律地排泄,代表身體健康,上面屁股規律地清理,則是心智的增長,有無相生相死,期待一個完全純潔的腦袋太不切實際。

於是乎,很滿意自己長成屁股樣的腦袋。

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The following are some interesting examples of Tu Fu’s “impressionistic” little poems:
以下是杜甫一些極富印象派特色的有趣例子:
絕句二首之一 杜甫
絕句二首之二 杜甫
閣夜 杜甫
絕句漫興九首之七 杜甫
江畔獨步尋花七絕句之六 杜甫

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Short poems, it should be noted, were no innovation. In many of the short poems—actually folk songs of the third century—we find many similar records in which simple incidents and feelings were caught and registered. All the so-called “little songs” are attempts to seize fragments from nature of from human life and reveal their quintessence.
應該注意的是,短詩其實並不是什麼新的東西。許多短詩事實上就是三世紀的民歌,我們能夠發現他們同樣記錄了簡單的事件、捕捉了情感。幾乎所謂的「小詩」都企圖要捕捉自然與人事中的片段,並顯出其中的精華。

This mood and this technique made a special appeal to Tu Fu in his old age and in these little gems we see the dexterity of his mature hands in fashioning the short, crisp lines until they were artlessly natural and yet unexpectedly stunning.
在杜甫晚年,這種詩歌精神與技巧對他產生特別的吸引力,而且在這些小珍品中可以看到他用成熟且靈巧的手法,創作出簡潔明快的句子,直到句子毫無雕琢味並且還有意想不到的驚豔效果。

He would accuse the spring wind of intruding into his garden without permission and of breaking the branches of his flowers. He would poke fun at his neighbor’s willow tree for having flirted with the spring wind and losing its longest branch by way of penalty.
他會責備春風未經許可闖入他的花園還摧折花的枝葉。他會戲弄鄰人的柳樹,說柳樹向春風調情並且因此被罰,斷了最長的樹枝。

He would recognize the cormorant on the sandy beach as an old acquaintance and urge the latter to visit him a hundred times each day. These little poems, which appear to be most casual and effortless, were really the crystallizations of a long-practiced artistry.
他會認出沙洲上的鳧鳥彷若舊識,並且催促鳧鳥每天拜訪他一百次。這些小詩似乎是最隨意且容易的,實在是高明藝術技巧的具體化。

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當兵士將詩呈交於帥,帥又呈上朝廷,於是唐明皇遍尋六宮,指示作者不會受到懲罰所以不應隱藏身份。一名宮女承認了,並說她罪該萬死。明皇大為感動,決定讓她嫁給得到詩的人,還說:「我願實現你們今生之姻緣。」
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唐朝還有另一個傳統,在於描寫大量禁苑才女,及她們與外在世界隔離的壓抑情緒:(描寫的內容是)她們將詩寫在紅葉上並將這些文學作品(抒情詩)藉由護城河的流水送到更廣大的世界去。
難怪在長安,許多想要追求文學榮耀的人會在護城河到處閒逛,因為到了幕秋,那裡的樹葉轉紅,被隔離的女詩人會變得極度感性。
至少有三則記載,記錄詩人與女詩人,由於這些吉祥紅葉所帶來的宮廷恩典而歡喜結緣。
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--完--
★註:由於學期結束了,打字也累了,所以後面部分就偷懶了。

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64
In the above poem we can see that Tu Fu, while lamenting the fate that had befallen the various impoverished scholars of the empire, could still see the humorous side or poverty. In this we see most clearly Tu Fu’s indebtedness to the humorous treatment of the tragic phases of life so common in folk songs—a type of literature which he had never despised.
在上面的詩中,可以看到杜甫雖然哀悼著降臨在諸多唐朝窮困學者的命運,仍能在貧窮當中看到幽默的一面。最為清楚的是,杜甫得益於用幽默來對待生活中悲慘的時期,在他的民歌中如此常見,這是他從未鄙視過的文學形式。

In many of the titles to his poems he indicated clearly his intention of writing humorous verse. Even when he was writing long historical poems of a serious nature like “Pei Chêng,” “Northward Travels,” there are injections of lines and phrases that revealed the poet’s fondness of the humorous and jocular.
從許多杜詩的標題中就清楚顯示他創作幽默詩句的意圖。即使當他寫作本質嚴肅的長篇歷史詩,例如「北征」,也都在行句之間注入他對幽默與滑稽的喜愛。

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This lighthearted side of Tu Fu’s poetic temperament did not preclude his frequent manifestations of seriousness in life and his deep-seated concern with and sorrow for his age. As a poet, however, he did not put on any air of dressed-up solemnity or venture to be purely didactic.
杜甫詩人個性中無憂無慮的一面,並不與他慣常的表現形式相抵觸,他慣常書寫生命的嚴肅以及根深柢固的感時傷老之情。然而,身為詩人,他並不會刻意板起臉孔或者矯揉造作。

Just as he could laugh heartily, his occasional efforts to swallow his own sorrows were all the more touching. The sadness he felt in the evening of his life is most clearly revealed in the poems in which he reminisced about incidents and feelings of his younger days.
就像他能由衷地笑,他偶而努力吞嚥自己悲傷之舉,更加令人動容。他晚年所感受的悲傷,更清晰顯示於詩作中,在這些詩裡他緬懷年少時期的所見所感。

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Although he never succeeded in detaching himself completely from the many basic difficulties threatening the reigning dynasty and the T’ang Empire as a whole, he was, after all, living the life of a retired scholar, spending his leisure on a farm.
雖然他從未成功地將自己抽離於威脅唐朝與皇帝的基本困難,整體而言,他畢竟是退隱的文人,度暇日於田園間罷了。

His daily schedule consisted in planting vegetables and picking mushrooms. While on one hand he lamented that he would fail to sleep at night on account of his inability to stop wars and to rectify the universe, he could in the daytime find much that was poetic in the chores of daily living.
他的日常安排就在於種疏拾菇。雖然他一方面難過自己因為無法止戰事、正乾坤而夜不成眠,卻能在日常生活的工作中發現詩作的泉源。

These little discoveries of what was meaningful and pleasant he recorded in his many “little poems.” These poems, recording small episodes of farm life, small reactions and impressions, were patterned into a verse form that was known as the chüeh chü, consisting of four lines composed of seven of five syllables.
這些既有意義又有趣的小發現,杜甫記錄於他的許多「小詩」中。這些詩記錄了田園生活的小情景、小情感與印象,都成為絕句的模型,由四句五言或四句七言所組成。

This verse form was not subjected to the limitations of tonal sequence or elaborate rhetoric. Externally it had a good deal in common with the quatrains of the yüeh fu type which Li Po had written with the greatest dexterity and which were originally intended to be sung to music.
這些詩句並不受到平仄與對仗的限制。形式上有許多地方與四行的樂府詩相同,亦即李白最為拿手的體裁,也是原先用來配樂而歌的體裁。

In spirit it was an entirely different vehicle completely detached from musical accompaniment and, therefore, peculiarly adapted to language of the common people. Tu Fu was able to breathe so much new life into this convenient verse form that many major poets of the following Sung Dynasty continued to cherish this chüeh chü form.
內在上,這些絕句完全是不同的載體,與音樂伴奏徹底分開,因此特別適合一般民眾的語言。杜甫能夠於其中吟詠如此多的新生活,因此許多後繼的宋代主要詩人都繼續珍愛這種絕句形式。

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In 759 Tu Fu was dismissed from office. Wandering all the way to far away Szechuan in his forty-eighth year, Tu Fu began to realize what official life was like and where he, as an individual, stood in a withering society. In his twenty poems written during his sojourn at Chinchow, he seemed to feel a keen disappointment in current politics. Thus he wrote:
759年杜甫被免官,48歲的他在遙遠的四川到處漫遊,當他一個人站在衰頹的社會現實中,他開始領悟到官場生活的本質。在他的〈秦州雜詩二十首〉裡頭,詩人似乎對當前的政治感到極度失望,因此他寫道:「唐堯真自聖,野老復何知。」

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Again, his disappointment was expressed in another poem entitled “His Ping Ma,” or “Purging of the Woes of War.”
又一次,他把失望表現於另一首詩中,題為〈洗兵馬〉。

In this he referred to those who climb on the bandwagon of the national heroes; of how everybody had become princes and dukes; of how according to dynastic flatterers all tiny kingdoms outside of China were submitting tributes, thus reiterating his disappointment with the young emperor whom the poet estimated to be a mediocre ruler.
詩中提到那些登上花車的國家英雄以及如何「天下盡化為侯王」,如何成為阿諛者口中的「寸地尺天皆入貢」,因此杜甫重申他對於心目中這位年輕的平庸統治者的失望。

Thenceforth, he made up his mind that there was not much he could do and that he should not entertain any further hope of “elevating the emperor above Yao and Shun.” From that time on—especially after his arrival in Szechuan—he finally resolved to live the life of a poet for the rest of his life.
此後他做出決定,他已經沒有什麼能做的了,也不應該對「致君堯舜上」懷抱著深刻的希望。從那時起,尤其在他抵達四川以後,決定要以詩人的身份終老一生。

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In the third period of his literary production, his life was a little more composed although as yet not entirely free from extreme poverty.
在文學創作的第三階段,雖然尚未徹底擺脫極度貧窮,他的生活卻稍微平靜起來。

Nonetheless, he had a little more rest and a little more leisure compared with his constant flight in the previous period. The heart of the T’ang Empire was still exposed to a whole series of emergencies.
不過,比起前一個時期不斷逃難的過程,他得以稍事休息,並得到些許餘暇。中原地帶仍然暴露於一連串的危機當中。

The An Lu-shan rebellion was prolonged by a new rebellion led by another insubordinate semi-Chinese general, Shih Ssŭ-ming; the Turfans, dissatisfied with their share of the war booty, pressed their invasion to the wall of the capital; and the central government was dropping daily in prestige and real power, making it possible for the different war lords stationed in the frontier regions to become so many petty kings.
安祿山之亂因為史思明叛變而延續著,他是一個不服從權威的將軍,帶有一半中國血統;而吐番也因為不滿意分得的戰利品,施加軍事壓力於首都城牆;此外中央政府的威信與實權也日漸滑落,軍閥得以駐紮在邊疆地區佔地為王。

China was destined to experience another period of political disintegration and division. Realizing what history had decreed for the future, Tu Fu confirmed his belief that what was open to him was nothing more than the life of a poor but dedicated poet. As before, he had no liking for reclusion and so he did not seek to leave the world, seeking only contentment and regularity in life as he found it. Hence, his poems written in this third period were ones descriptive of the simple life.
中國註定要經歷另一次政治的分崩離析。杜甫深知歷史上的前車之鑑,他更堅定了自己的信念,呈現在他面前的雖只是貧窮的生活,同時也是一種獻身於詩歌的生活。一如既往,他不喜歡隱居,因此不會想脫離世俗,他只求生活能夠滿足與規律,就像他所建立的那樣。因此,他在第三階段所作的詩,描述著儉樸的生活。

The echoes of war and devastation were still audible and political dependency was still attended with hardships but he was never deprived of his ability to elicit smiles and poetry from adverse circumstances. With the ripening of his age, his verse forms became absolutely mature.
戰爭與荒蕪所帶來的迴響仍可聽聞,政治依附也仍伴隨著苦難,但是他從未讓自己的能力被剝奪,還能夠在逆境中展露笑容與詩作。隨著年歲增長,他的詩變得完全成熟。

His short poems of this age were the natural overflow of his personality recorded at random without adornment and without conscious artistry but all palpitating with poetic flavor. They were continuations of the tradition of T’ao Yüan-ming and vanguards of the poetry of the Sung Dynasty.
到了這個年紀,他的短詩是他人格的自然流露,筆端自由而不佳裝飾,也沒有人為的加工,有的只是富於詩味的悸動。這些詩繼承了陶淵明的傳統,並成為宋詩的先驅。

What he was experiencing during this stage was real rustic life and not the life of self-styled farm hermits of the earlier part of the T’ang Dynasty. As a result, his poetry was real poetry dedicate to the appreciation of nature.
他在這時期歷經了真正的田園生活,不同於初唐時具有個人風格的田園隱士。因此,他的詩真正致力於贊頌自然。
(茅屋為秋風所破歌 杜甫)

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今天上課,討論篇章為賴和〈一桿「稱仔」〉,描寫日本殖民時代社會底層的悲慘命運。老師分享了一個他小時候的見聞,是臺灣人的阿Q精神。

老師問日本人:「日語的蘿蔔怎麼說?」
「大根(dai kon)」,日本人答。
「那kyo ri是什麼?」
「小黃瓜」

老師說:「我曾聽過買菜的臺灣人,擔了菜叫賣時,大喊『kyo ri rai kon』(臺語)」

聽到這裡我和一個學妹開始大笑起來,因為「kyo ri rai kon」日本人聽來是「小黃瓜、蘿蔔」,臺灣人聽來卻是「抓你來打」。

「抓你來打」,「抓你來打」……。菜販沿街對著日本人大叫「kyo ri rai kon」,心裡一定是很爽的。

雖然生活被壓榨,但是嘴裡心裡偷偷的罵,這就是阿Q式的精神勝利,在那個時代,不然你要怎樣。

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一早要跟雄紀討論日文,十點就在教室等,等了半小時他匆匆忙忙跑進研究室跟我說:「學姊我早上有課,記錯時間了,下午討論可以嗎?すみません。」上課優先,當然不好意思說什麼,就讓他去了。沒想到下午我們討論出一個有趣的主題,雄紀決定要寫中日顏色形容詞的比較,然後順便幫我把日語自我介紹寫好了,本來沒想到可以這麼迅速解決一件為了申請出國的麻煩事,老天讓我緊張了好幾天,付出一個期末報告協助,就輕易換來了。

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FLPT是語言測驗中心(LTTC)的一項外語能力測驗,由於今年沒有考到日本語能力測驗,所以就抓住今年最後一次可以考驗自己的機會,報名了FLPT中的日語測驗。記得去年還考FLPT德語呢,當時德文學了三課就去鳳新高中荼毒一下自己,程度有限,考了也看不出來考題難度有多少。

今次的日語測驗在LTTC本部考,也就是台大校園內,一早我跟阿玫從和平東路轉新生南路,再拐進辛亥路二段,辛亥路上有兩個側門,恰好我們走錯了,一進校園都是臨時鐵柵圍起的工地,校園地圖也沒標示語言中心的位置,問了幾個人還遇到幾個同樣找不到考場的人,好不容易找到考場了,在一樓大廳看到自己的號碼,想說啊找到了,開心的爬上樓竟然發現沒有四樓!於是又咚咚咚衝下樓問工作人員,他說:

「啊你的考場在隔壁棟啊,你走錯了啊!」

「可是你們標示不清啊?」我已經有點不爽了。

「外面都有貼標示牌,怎麼可能會找不到啊!」

結果等我兩個半小時後考完筆試出來,才發現很多人在進場鈴響才發現自己跑錯棟了,匆匆趕場,聽阿玫說兩棟人馬互換的人很多,所以工作人員不得已跑到室外來指引。

原來這就是所謂的標示很清楚的結果啊。阿玫說這是台大人的驕傲,他們以為所有人都應該知道台大長什麼樣子。

考完筆試、口試後,我覺得這個測驗比日本與能力測驗三級難度還高一些,有許多文法、語彙是三級日檢不會考的,而且還考了日檢沒有的口說,還好不用寫作文。八點來到考場,一點才離開,整個時間拖得比世界無敵拖的托福還長,還好精神不錯,沒有打起盹來。筆試時,同教室的考生泰半都提早精神出走了,聚精會神寫到最後一題的大概不多,結束時聽到他們互相詢問各自睡了多久,還揶揄冷氣太強導致睡不好,如果這是考不好的說詞,倒也可以算是一種另類的驕傲吧,我不喜歡。

考題對我而言雖然很難,但是認真閱讀考題其實也是一種閱讀訓練,明知考得很差,卻考得很起勁,尤其是閱讀測驗中出現了松井秀喜、青少女詐騙、數位音樂媒體、文學中的蛙鳴、羅馬帝國尊重異文化等很有意思的文章,枯燥的考試中儼然吹過一陣薰風,考試中於是笑了起來。

也許,有空會再挑戰一次,德文也好,日文也好。

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白先勇〈國葬〉中的文化議題

 

一、「國葬」的文化意義

 誰能舉辦國葬/國葬儀式/國葬對國家人民的意義

二、國民政府時期的軍政文化

 軍伍關係/蔣白關係/國共內戰/為何內戰/臺灣人如何看待國共內戰

三、外省文化

 今昔之感、無家之悲/外省族群的場域/說話、行為、價值觀的不同

四、李浩然與秦義方的特殊關係

 職務(同袍、從屬)關係/家人(父子、夫妻、同性)關係?

五、遺民思想

 白先勇的遺民思想/來臺人士希望回歸故土的心情

六、懷舊文化

 與《臺北人》其他篇章共有的,對舊時代舊生活的懷念/(可與其他項合併)

七、身分失落的新時代

 身分改變的釋然/接納新時代/(可與其他項合併)

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2008研討會感想──2008青年文學會議(2008/11/29-30於國家圖書館)

第二次參與青年文學會,和2006年那次相比,心得大有不同。二年前,剛投入中文研究沒多久,一切都未上軌道,也不曉得該如何上軌道,想當然爾對於論文寫作流程與發表過程都不很清楚,一時興起就報了名,接著頂了個南部氣息的腦袋走進會場,讓每個發表人當作氣墊搥打,強制性的當頭棒喝。

當時會議和今日有個共同點,亦即北部學生為主體,會議的說話方式、交誼方式、研究取向、標題模式等,乃至穿著打扮、聽講態度、論戰精神,都是一個北北的樣兒。這或許是因為在國圖舉辦有關,也和北部學術風氣較為開放、流行、多元有關吧,但這些價值並非全然正確,也不是唯一一條研究之路。

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